Words of Wisdom at sTARTUp Day 2019

On the last day of sTARTUp Day, I met a Latvian entrepreneur over my modest lunch. We talked about machines taking over erratic humans in service and how it’s difficult for older companies to keep up with the times. I told her my story, and, before she left, she repeated several times: “Don’t give up!”

This is something I have heard before, and not long ago. sTARTUp Day – the biggest business festival in the Baltics, with 4,000 participants and a huge programme on three stages, plus a number of seminar rooms – started with a slackliner show. Jaan Roose shared his story after the performance. His piece of advice was something along the lines of: when you have failed again and again, ask yourself: Can I do it just one more time?

Swedish astronaut Christer Fuglesang, a guest of honour at sTARTUp Day, had the patience to train for over 14 years before he eventually got to space.

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Genomic Study: Indian Rors Have Roots in West Eurasia

The geographic distribution and sampling locations of newly reported modern samples from Northwest India.
The geographic distribution and sampling locations of newly reported modern samples from Northwest India. An inset shows a map of Vedic India. Dots denote the samples studied, and green color indicates samples from published literature.

A new genomic study highlights the closeness of the Ror and Jat Indian population groups to populations residing west of India, including modern Europe. The study also suggests that the genetic heterogeneity of the contemporary Indus population possibly originates from the ancient Indus Valley Civilization period.

The Indus Valley Civilization was among the greatest early civilizations, alongside those in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. It extended across present-day Pakistan, deep into Northwestern India, and had major settlements established on the plains between the Indus and the Ganges basin.

Archaeologists consider the settlements of Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi to be early cities of the Indus civilization. Harappa was such a rich discovery that the Indus Valley Civilization is also called the Harappan civilization. The Indus Valley has been the gateway to South Asia since ancient times. The civilization flourished in the Bronze Age during 3300–1300 BCE.

The study used DNA data from four Northwest Indian population groups — Ror, Gujjar, Jat, and Kamboj — whose long-term existence in the Indus Valley region can be traced back to the early Vedic scriptures. Previously published data on the Khatri community of Punjab was also used for the analysis. The study compared the newly generated data with the DNA data of the present-day global population groups and the ancient DNA data from groups such as West Eurasians.

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Researchers on controversial political ads by Eesti 200

Ads at Tallinn's Hobujaama tram stop on 7 January 2019.
Ads that appeared at Tallinn’s busy central Hobujaama tram stop early on Monday morning. 7 January 2019. Image credit: ERR

On Monday, 7 January

Early on Monday morning last week, commuters in central Tallinn faced bilingual advertisements dividing each side of the Hobujaama tram stop in half. The ads on the left, in blue, stated, “Here only Estonians” and the ads on the right, in red, stated, “Here only Russians”.

The ads also listed phone numbers to call with any questions – with a different number listed on each side.

When calling the number listed on the Estonian side, a prerecorded message said that Riigikogu elections were taking place on 3 March, where “they” would be running, and stressed that, “We, Estonians, definitely have to stick together; make sure you are standing on the right side”.

When calling the number listed on the Russian side, the same prerecorded message was played in Russian, stressing instead that Russians have to stick together.

While the tram ads spread like fire on social media, it remained unclear who was behind them. All attempts by media on Monday to determine the authors of the ads brought no results.

On Tuesday, 8 January

Ads at Tallinn's Hobujaama tram stop on 8 January 2019.
By Tuesday morning, the controversial ads at Tallinn’s busy central Hobujaama tram stop had been replaced by ads for a new political party, Estonia 200. 8 January 2019. Image credit: Urmet Kook/ERR

By Tuesday morning, the controversial ads had been replaced by ads for Estonia 200. The new ads, in Estonian and Russian, read, “Estonians and Russians: Attend the same school” and “Estonians and Russians: Attend the same party”.

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The Intercellular Genetic Language Is Our First Language

Last December, Alireza Fazeli held his inaugural lecture as the new Professor of Clinical Genomics and Personalized Medicine at the University of Tartu. He presented his view on the burning issue of how cells communicate with each other and why we need to know about it.

Alireza Fazeli giving professorship inaugural lecture at the University of Tartu.
Alireza Fazeli giving the inaugural professorship lecture at the University of Tartu. Image credit: Andres Tennus / UT

Prenatal communication on the cell level

Let’s look at pregnancy and its most important stage – implantation. That is when the embryo attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. The big question about that is: how the does mother’s body recognize the child’s embryo?

This is where prenatal communication comes in. This is communication on a cellular level that requires a certain communication system, or language. Language elicits a reaction from whomever receives the “message”; it is a means of influencing someone or something.

Communication on the cellular level becomes important if we try to understand how different cells – like an embryo and cell of the uterus – recognize each other.

The uterus only has around two kinds of bacteria that can live there. Compared to the lower vaginal part, it hosts almost no other species. We can say that the uterus has a “high security level” because this environment actively defends itself against other organisms.

Our body’s defense mechanisms can include: avoidance with the help of the immune system; resistance with inflammation; or tolerance (coexistence). Therefore, if the uterus had any other defense reaction to the embryo besides tolerance, the implantation on days 8-9 (see image below) couldn’t take place and the pregnancy would halt. Only after the cells on the walls of the uterus have received the message that it is indeed the embryo is it allowed to attach.

 First week of pregnancy – attachment to the wall of uterus takes place on days 8-9.
First week of pregnancy – attachment to the wall of the uterus takes place on days 8-9. Image credit: Ttrue12 / Wikimedia
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Top 10 Most Read Stories from 2018

We are most excited for 2019. But before we go ahead, let’s look back at the best and the worst from the previous year. We’ll save you from the worst and keep it for our own learning, but share with you the most valuable stuff on our blog from 2018. Here come our most popular stories for your reading pleasure:

1. Doctoral Students’ Stories – Reasons to Undertake the Journey

Doctoral students share their stories, victories, and challenges. Full disclosure: gathering positive stories turned out to be a much more difficult task than finding negative ones.

Marriage vs the Ph.D.
Marriage vs The Ph.D. Author / Source: PhD Comics

2. How to start writing – the most useful tips!

Learn about the typical myths to postpone writing, two golden hours, tips on how to stay focused for these two hours, why you should share your first draft with supervisor or co-authors rather sooner than later, setting priorities, and “snack” writing.

3. Honest advice from current international students

The University of Tartu took part in an international student survey. As a part of the survey, our international degree and exchange students could give advice to new students. Here’s what they said.

…don’t be scared to make this decision

Here's to tough decisions
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Five Life Lessons from Tartu

It has been already more than 6 years since I graduated from University of Tartu 😱 It’s a cliche to say that time flies, but I can’t find in my dictionary a better phrase to describe it. I remember it as if it was yesterday, as well as all those questions and hesitations of my friends about going for master’s studies to a place that very few people recognised 😬 It’s mostly because many of them were taught in schools to recite all Baltic States in one breath: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia… Well done, sit down!🏅

What the heck, lets go to Tartu! 🚌

I may say that it was my natural curiosity that drove me to Tartu. On one side, yes. On other side, I had a strong feeling that understanding historic and economic relations between the European Union and Russian Federation would make much more sense in a post-Soviet state 🤔 I can’t imagine a better place to understand both sides than to explore those relations on the border of both worlds. In addition, I knew that I had to make a student exchange to Russia, no matter what. Not doing it would be like learning coding without touching a computer.

The Arch Bridge and the Town Hall Square in Tartu

Going to Tartu was like a crash course before getting involved in business matters between the East and the West of Europe. It prepared me for undertaking my first real job on the edge of Europe and Russia. Image credit: Riina Varol / Visit Estonia CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

What studying in Tartu taught me? 📚

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4 Researchers, 6 Questions about Christmas

I chatted to four University of Tartu researchers on Twitter about their  Christmas. Please meet Senior Research Fellow in Botany Aveliina Helm, Professor of Philosophy of Language Tuomo Juhani Yli-Vakkuri, Professor in Information Systems Marlon Dumas, and Professor of Jazz Music Iñaki Sandoval.

While Aveliina Helm’s Christmas seems to be traditionally Estonian, the rest of the company’s holidays are as international as their backgrounds. What unites them all is a hearty Christmas dinner with family or friends, as well as doing some work during the holidays.

Let’s see what our researchers’ Christmas look like.


What makes it feel like Christmas for you?

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